PLOS One seems to have done it again! I wrote a few days ago about how the peer review system at PLOS One seemed to give a free pass to acupuncture studies, when it came to seeking rigorous experimental evidence in support of the claims presented in the paper. I had shared the post via Twitter, and in response, someone from PLOS One had replied:
Serious question: has the peer review system at the PLOS journals been doing a less-than-stellar job when it comes to evaluating complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research for publication? If the answer is ‘yes’, why? Or if ‘no’, how does a paper like this go through PLOS ONE without some serious revisions? I refer to the systematic review and meta-analysis on effectiveness of acupuncture for essential hypertension, done by a group of researchers from the Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in China, led by Xiao-Feng Zhao, published on July 24, 2015, on PLOS ONE. The authors conclude that there is acceptable evidence for use of acupuncture as adjunctive therapy along with medication for treating hypertension. My perusal of the paper led to some major reservations about that assumption, as well as indicated some instances of sloppy writing which should have been corrected at the stage of review – but, strangely, wasn’t.
Early last month, I communicated in a blog post a few questions I had about a study in Electro Acupuncture published in PLOS One. It took the authors a while to get to them, but the senior and corresponding author of that study, Professor Kai-Liang Wu, of the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, graciously wrote a detailed reply to my question a week ago. I am going to put his response in this space in blocks. For better comprehension, I shall put my questions in italicized letters followed by his response; the boldface types are for emphasis, mine. My comments are interspersed with the blocks.
Ed Yong (@edyong209 on Twitter) is a fabulous British science writer and blogger, who won in 2010 the prestigious National Academies Communication Awards, jointly presented by the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. His writing has been featured in New Scientist, the Times, WIRED, the Guardian, Nature amongst other places, and he currently blogs (“”http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/notrocketscience" style=“text-decoration: none;”>Not Exactly Rocket Science") at the Discover Magazine website.
Most of my readers here, I expect, already read and follow him. If you haven’t had the pleasure, don’t delay. Ed is a fantastic writer, very readable, and he presents the awe-inspiring and glorious world of science in a lucid enjoyable manner. I follow his blog religiously.
In a recent post, Ed presents a fascinating study – published in PLoS One – about how some blind human beings are able to use the technique of Echolocation; they make clicking noises with their tongue (or with an object like a cane) and – from the rebounding echoes – they are able to estimate not only the presence of objects in their paths, but also the distance, size, shape and texture of those objects. Much in the same way as dolphins and bats do, these people can “see” their world in sound. Daredevil, anyone?
The PLoS One article studied functional brain activities in a couple of sightless individuals, noting activity in a part of the brain called Calcarine Cortex, the area of the brain associated with sight. I don’t want to give it away; please read Ed’s article and the PLoS One paper to know more of this. However, one aspect that I found particularly amazing is that this skill apparently can be taught to other sightless individuals.
My father was a teacher of Music in a local school for blind children which provided them with education as well as vocational training. Amongst the students, there were many types: some were congenitally blind, some lost vision as a result of some life-threatening illness or severe injury, while some had very poor eyesight and would gradually lose it. I always felt particularly bad for this latter group; in my experience, some of these children used to take a leadership position in a class group, guiding and helping others. I can’t imagine what it must feel like to gradually lose vision, and I thought it incredibly brave of these children who would state it as a matter of fact.
Ed’s article presents incredibly good news; it appears that the echolocation technique can be taught and the skill acquired, and that’s exactly what the subjects of the PLoS One study do. Writes Ed:
As leaders of their organisation, World Access for the Blind, they travel the world teaching echolocation (they called it “FlashSonar”) to blind teens and adults, and leading them on activities such as hiking and mountain biking. They have reached over 2,500 people in 18 countries. Kish says, “We expect this to add much creditibility to our own approach to teaching and working with blind students. In this respect, I hope it helps to make me a better Perceptual Mobility Therapist.”
This is amazing! I have seen adult blind individuals walking around with the aid of their foldable walking stick; they would tap the ground ahead of them before placing a foot ahead. But if taught how to echolocate, these people should be able to lead assistance-free, normal lives, engage in regular activities, and not be at risk for getting injured even on busy streets. The possibilities are endless.